Double Hung: Double hung is a vertical sliding window. The top slides down, and the bottom slides up.
Single Hung: Single hung is a vertical sliding window. The top is fixed, and the bottom slides up.
Bay/Bow: Bay and Bow windows project out from the house to create a shelf or window seat on the interior. A Bow window is three or more windows linked together coming out on a shallow angle. Bow windows are 3 windows with a 30 or 45 degree angled protrusion from the house. Typically the center window is a large fixed window and the end two operate.
Casement: Casement windows crank open or push open depending on the manufactures design. Typically French casement windows push open with no crank mechanism. The modern casement has a geared crank and will allow the window to swing to the 90 degree position.
Awning: Awning windows are typically hinged at the top, and the bottom cranks open. A scissors hinge allows the window to open about 30 degrees, and it will keep it open until cranked shut.
Sliding Windows: Horizontally sliding windows have a variety of configurations. There is the typical half sliding half fixed window with a screen over the sliding side. This is the most common window here on the west coast. Double sliding windows are also available with 2 even sized panels, both slide. This gives you the option to open either side. They can be made with a full screen to cover both sides, or a half screen. Three panel windows are made for the wider openings. Typically we will see two smaller sliding vents on either end with a larger one in the middle. This allows you to open both ends of the window.
Garden Window: Garden windows have an angled glass on the top and they project away from the house usually at 90 degrees. Garden windows are most popular at the sink where people would like to add some space to their counter for an herb garden or decorations. Garden window are available with shelves as well. There are several types of garden windows available in both single hung and casement.
Window Frame material:
Wood: Wood windows are still the benchmark for elegance. They are available in any species of wood and look great stained or painted. Wood windows are known for higher maintenance with exterior paint. Wood windows have evolved to offer exterior cladding. The exterior of these windows is covered in factory painted aluminum to reduce the maintenance demands.
Fiberglass: Fiberglass windows offer the durability of steel, with the energy efficiency of wood or vinyl. Fiberglass is popular due to its strength and durability in extreme environments. You can find fiberglass windows with real wood interiors, as well as factory painted interior finish. Fiberglass exteriors are factory painted and offer a wide variety of colors.
Aluminum: Aluminum is popular with contemporary designs due to its thin frames. Less energy efficient we are seeing it used less, but aluminum windows are a durable low maintenance option.
Vinyl: Vinyl has fast become the most commonly used material for residential window replacement. It is popular due to its price, warranty, versatility and efficiency. With the addition of painted exterior vinyl is able to fit most all architectural needs.